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Questions 1-10  Listen from here

You will hear a woman giving a talk at a popular science convention. She is describing research into artificial gills designed to enable humans to breathe underwater.

Complete the notes below.

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

Creating artificial gills


  •    Taking in oxygen; mammals - lungs; fish - gills
  •    Long-held dreams - humans swimming underwater without oxygen tanks
  •    Oxygen tanks considered too 1 and large 
  •    Attempts to extract oxygen directly from water
  •    1960s - prediction that humans would have gills added by 2
  •    Ideas for artificial gills were inspired by research on
    •   fish gills
    •   fish swim bladders
    •   animals without gills - especially bubbles used by 3

Building a simple artificial gill

  • Make a watertight box of a materiaI which lets 4 pass through 
  • Fill with air and submerge in water Important that the diver and the water keep 5
  • The gill has to have a large 6
  • Designers often use a network of small 7 on their gill 

Main limitation - problems caused by increased 8 in deeper water 

Other applications

  • Supplying oxygen for use on 9
  • Powering 10 cells for driving machinery underwater 



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