Solution for: Tourism

Answer Table

1. iii 8. NOT GIVEN
2. v 9. YES
3. iv 10. NOT GIVEN
4. vii 11. D
5. viii 12. B
6. NO 13. F
7. YES 14. H

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Exam Review

Tourism

 

A - Justifying the study of tourism

Tourism, holidaymaking and travel are these days more significant social phenomena than most commentators have considered. On the face of it there could not be a more trivial subject for a book. And indeed since social scientists have had considerable difficulty explaining weightier topics, such as work or politics, it might be thought that they would have great difficulties in accounting for more trivial phenomena such as holidaymaking. However, there are interesting parallels with the study of deviance. This involves the investigation of bizarre and idiosyncratic social practices which happen to be defined as deviant in some societies but not necessarily in others. The assumption is that the investigation of deviance can reveal interesting and significant aspects of normal societies. It could be said that a similar analysis can be applied to tourism.

 

B - The essence of modern tourism

Tourism is a leisure activity which presupposes its opposite, namely regulated and organised work. It is one manifestation of how work and leisure are organised as separate and regulated spheres of social practice in modern societies. Indeed acting as a tourist is one of the defining characteristics of being ‘modern’ and the popular concept of tourism is that it is organised within particular places and occurs for regularised periods of time. Tourist relationships arise from a movement of people to, and their stay in, various destinations. This necessarily involves some movement, that is the journey, and a period of stay in a new place or places. ‘The journey and the stay’ are by definition outside the normal places of residence and work and are of a short term and temporary nature and there is a clear intention to return ‘home’ within a relatively short period of time.

 

C - Tourism contrasted with travel

A substantial proportion of the population of modern societies engages in such tourist practices new socialised forms of provision have developed in order to cope with the mass character of the gazes of tourists as opposed to the individual character of travel. Places are chosen to be visited and be gazed upon because there is an anticipation especially through daydreaming and fantasy of intense pleasures, either on a different scale or involving different senses from those customarily encountered. Such anticipation is constructed and sustained through a variety of non-tourist practices such as films, TV literature, magazines records and videos which construct and reinforce this daydreaming.

 

D - Creating an alternative to the everyday experience

Tourists tend to visit features of landscape and townscape which separate them off from everyday experience. Such aspects are viewed because they are taken to be in some sense out of the ordinary. The viewing of these tourist sights often involves different forms of social patterning with a much greater sensitivity to visual elements of landscape or townscape than is normally found in everyday life. People linger over these sights in a way that they would not normally do in their home environment and the vision is objectified or captured through photographs postcards films and so on which enable the memory to be endlessly reproduced and recaptured.

 

E - The artificiality of modern tourism

One of the earliest dissertations on the subject of tourism is Boorstins analysis of the pseudo event (1964) where he argues that contemporary. Americans cannot experience reality directly but thrive on pseudo events. Isolated from the host environment and the local people the mass tourist travels in guided groups and finds pleasure in inauthentic contrived attractions gullibly enjoying the pseudo events and disregarding the real world outside. Over time the images generated of different tourist sights come to constitute a closed self-perpetuating system of illusions which provide the tourist with the basis for selecting and evaluating potential places to visit. Such visits are made says Boorstin, within the environmental bubble of the familiar American style hotel which insulates the tourist from the strangeness of the host environment.

 

F - The role of modern tour guides

To service the burgeoning tourist industry, an array of professionals has developed who attempt to reproduce ever-new objects for the tourist to look at. These objects or places are located in a complex and changing hierarchy. This depends upon the interplay between, on the one hand, competition between interests involved in the provision of such objects and, on the other hand changing class, gender, and generational distinctions of taste within the potential population of visitors. It has been said that to be a tourist is one of the characteristics of the modern experience. Not to go away is like not possessing a car or a nice house. Travel is a marker of status in modern societies and is also thought to be necessary for good health. The role of the professional, therefore, is to cater for the needs and tastes of the tourists in accordance with their class and overall expectations.

 

Questions 1-5

Reading Passage has 6 paragraphs (A-F).

Choose the most suitable heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.

Write the appropriate numbers (i-ix) in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet Paragraph D has been done for you as an example.

NB There are more headings than paragraphs so you will not use all of them.

You may use any heading more than once.

1

Paragraph A
1. Answer: iii    Locate

2

Paragraph B
2. Answer: v    Locate

3

Paragraph C
3. Answer: iv    Locate

Example

Paragraph D    Answer: ix

4

Paragraph E
4. Answer: vii    Locate

5

Paragraph F
5. Answer: viii    Locate

 List of Headings
 

i. The politics of tourism

ii. The cost of tourism

iii. Justifying the study of tourism

iv. Tourism contrasted with travel

v. The essence of modern tourism

vi. Tourism versus leisure

vii. The artificiality of modern tourism

viii. The role of modern tour guides

ix. Creating an alternative to the everyday experience

 

Questions 6-10

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage? In boxes 6-10 write

YES    if the statement agrees with the writer

NO    if the statement contradicts the writer

NOT GIVEN    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

 

Example    

People who can’t afford to travel watch films and TV.    Answer: NOT GIVEN

 

6    Tourism is a trivial subject.
6. Answer: NO    Locate

7    An analysis of deviance can act as a model for the analysis of tourism.
7. Answer: YES    Locate

8    Tourists usually choose to travel overseas.
8. Answer: NOT GIVEN

9    Tourists focus more on places they visit than those at home.
9. Answer: YES    Locate

10    Tour operators try to cheat tourists.
10. Answer: NOT GIVEN

Questions 11-14

Chose one phrase (A-H) from the list of phrases to complete each key point below. Write the appropriate letters (A-H) in boxes 11-14 on your answer sheet.

The information in the completed sentences should be an accurate summary of points made by the writer.

NB There are more phrases A-H than sentences so you will not use them all. You may use any phrase more than once.

 

11    Our concept of tourism arises from 
11. Answer: D    Locate

12    The media can be used to enhance 
12. Answer: B    Locate

13    People view tourist landscapes in a different way from
13. Answer: F    Locate

14    Group tours encourage participants to look at 
14. Answer: H    Locate

 

 List of Phrases
A
local people and their environment.
E
the individual character of travel.
B
the expectations of tourists.
F
places seen in everyday life.
C
the phenomena of holiday making.
G
photographs which recapture our holidays.
D
the distinction we make between work and leisure.
H
sights designed specially for tourists.

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